From Just another day in the life of a linux sysadmin
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System Logging

tailing log files to watch them is a good thing as it keeps you updated in real time. This is an essential and greatly useful task for a systems admin. This tells you what is happening now.

   tail -f /path/to/file.log

Most log files are in /var/log. Apache / Cpanel logs are not here however.

/var/log/secure contains FTP/SSH login info (login failure messages)

/var/log/cron = cron logs.

/var/log dmesg = startup logs.

/var/log/httpd = apache logs, there's a symlink here for the correct log file (/usr/local/apache/logs)

/usr/local/cpanel/logs = cpanel logs.

/var/log/exim_mainlog = cpanel's main EXIM log. Verbose logs.

/var/log/lfd.log = Login Failure log

Logs and Statuses

access_log contains apache server over IPs

domain logs are like access logs, but for domains.

log warn levels: notice = purely informational. warning = technically incorrect, but shouldn't effect anything. error message = errors.